Computer hardware

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Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computer, such as the case,[1] central processing unit (CPU), monitormousekeyboardcomputer data storagegraphics cardsound cardspeakers and motherboard.[2]

By contrast, software is the set of instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is so-termed because it is “hard” or rigid with respect to changes, whereas software is “soft” because it is easy to change.

Hardware is typically directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system, although other systems exist with only hardware.

Von Neumann architecture[edit]

Von Neumann architecture scheme

The template for all modern computers is the Von Neumann architecture, detailed in a 1945 paper by Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann. This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both data and instructions, external mass storage, and input and output mechanisms.[3] The meaning of the term has evolved to mean a stored-program computer in which an instruction fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share a common bus. This is referred to as the Von Neumann bottleneck and often limits the performance of the system.[4]

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